Wednesday, May 18, 2011

The Deep Web

The Deep Web or Invisible Web are untapped resources that are not typically indexed by search engines. Elements of the invisible web are:
  • unindexed pages
  • electronic books
  • product catalogs
  • library catalogs
  • online newsletters
  • government records and 
  • other databases

Typically information must be accessed directly from a specialized search engine within the resource. 

Crawling and indexing are processes which can take some time and which rely on many factors. In general, we cannot make predictions or guarantees about when or if your URLs will be crawled or indexed.

Google Webmaster Central. http://www.google.com/support/forum/p/Webmasters/thread?tid=559f12c1e8e243cf&hl=en (Nov 11, 2011)

Citing Web Sources

Citing a Paper

In research papers, quoting another's writing or ideas is acceptable as long as certain rules are followed. The quotation must be set apart, either with quotation marks (short quotes) or by indentation (long quotes).  Additionally, you must cite  the author and source of the quote.   Using a few lines or more of a person's writing or not crediting the source is plagiarism and is wrong.

According to the strictest rules, it's me is wrong. (Turn the sentence around.  You would never say "me am it" or "her is it." You would say "I am it" and "she is it."  However, it's me is so commonly used that it is gaining acceptance as an idiom....In informal speech or writing, it's okay, but in formal writing or public speaking, use it's I

Elliott, Rebecca (2006).  Painless Grammar. New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc., p.21 

Citing Internet Sources

For Internet sources, the same quotation and citation rules apply.   In citing web references, use a DOI and in lieu cite the URL.  The only exception is if you use information based on common knowledge or facts that are in numerous sources.

Using a URL
The 10 largest occupations accounted for more than 20 percent of total employment in May 2010. In addition to retail salespersons and cashiers, the largest occupations included general office clerks; combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food; registered nurses; and waiters and waitresses.

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics.  http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.nr0.htm (May17, 2011)

Using a DOI

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a permanent digital identifier given to an object.  Its most common application is identifying electronic documents. 

The International DOI Foundatin (IDF) defines DOI name as "a digital identifier of any object of intellectual property."

DOI used as a link in an HTML page would be:
  • <A HREF="http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/rwei.1999%22.0001">10.1006/rwei.1999%22.0001</A>
DOI for an article from JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association:
  • 10.1001/PUBS.JAMA(278)3,JOC7055-ABSY:


Internet Public Library: Citing Electronic Information, IPL2
APA Style.org
The Chicago Manual of Style Online
Purdue: Works Cited: Electronic Sources (MLA style)
Ohio State: Cite Resources: Council of Science Editors (CSE style)
ONLINE! Citation Styles
Handle System

Tuesday, May 10, 2011


Semantic Networks

A  knowledge representation technique that focuses on the relationships between objects. A directed graph (below) is used to represent a semantic network or the net. The nodes of the graph represent the objects, and the arrows between nodes represent relationships. The arrows are labeled to indicate the types of relationships that exist.

Semantic Web = Linked Data

The Semantec web formed of data, like service reviews and type of relationships between people.  Web developers help add structure to social data by using rich snippets in web pages to support markup formats called microformats and RDFa.  

Microformats categorize elements with the rel and class attributes. Some popular microformats:
  • hCard
  • contact data
  • hCalendar
  • calendars or individual events
  • XFN
  • personal relations
  • rel-license
  • hAtom
  • news feed
  • geo
  • latitude/longitude
<p class=geo>The Hot Spot at
 <span class=latitude>56.216718</span>
 <span class=longitude>29.305995</span></p>


RDFa syntax:
  • noun isa noun
  • noun verb
  • noun verb object
  • noun’s noun verb object

Example without RDFa:
My name is Erika and I am the original iAmErika. Here is my home page:
<a href="http://www.iamerika.com">www.iamerika.com</a>.
I live in San Diego, CA and work as a Web Developer and Online Marketing Strategist at iAmErika.com.

Example with RDFa:
<div xmlns:v="http://rdf.iamerika.com/#" typeof="v:Person">
  My name is <span property="v:name">Erika</span>,
  and I am the original <span property="v:nickname"> iAmErika </span>.
  Here is my homepage:
  <a href="http://www.iamerika.com" rel="v:url">www.iamerika.com</a>.
  I live in San Diego, CA and work as a  <span property="v:title">Web Developer and Online Marketing Strategist</span> at
  at <span property="v:affiliation">iAmErika.com</span>.